Strategy for Revolution in 21st Century
Lenin: The Cultural Revolution, 1923 Its relation to a Culture of Peace for the 21st Century


Marx and Engels:
Communist Manifesto

Civil War in France


Theory of History

Marx and Engels:
On Human Nature


Violence and the Origin of the State

Socialism: Utopian and Scientific

Marx, Engels, Lenin:
On Dialectics

What is to be done?


The State and Revolution

Lenin: War Communism

The Cultural Revolution

Left-Wing Communism

The American Revolutions

The French Revolutions

On Workers Control

On Religion

On the Arms Race

Militarization of Labor

Russian Revolution

The Women's Question

Role of Communist Party

On Violence

On the Army

On Women

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

Mao and Fidel:
Fall of the American Empire

Man and Socialism in Cuba

Hall and Winston:
Fighting Racism

National Liberation and Culture

Cabral: National Liberation and Culture

Nkrumah: Neo-Colonialism

In 1923, at the end of his life, Lenin called for a "cultural revolution" in the Soviet Union, stating that "there has been a radical modification in our whole outlook on socialism. The radical modification is this; formerly we placed, and had to place, the main emphasis on the political struggle, on revolution, on winning political power, etc. Now the emphasis is changing and shifting to peaceful, organizational, 'cultural' work. I should say that emphasis is shifting to educational work."

Lenin hoped that a cultural revolution could lead to an economic system based on co-operatives in the Soviet Union. As he explains in his article "On Co-operation": "...the organisation of the entire peasantry in co-operative societies presupposes a standard of culture among the peasants (precisely among the peasants as the overwhelming mass) that cannot, in fact be achieved without a cultural revolution ... in our country the political and social revolution preceded the cultural revolution, that very cultural revolution which nevertheless now confronts us." [Note: Apparently there was no direct connection between this and the "great proletarian cultural revolution" launched by Mao Tse Tung in China in 1966.]

Although he emphasized the immediate task of establishing peasant cooperatives, Lenin made it clear that the ultimate goal was to organize cooperatives for the entire population. Hence, in On Co-operation, he went so far as to say that "given the class victory of the proletariat over the bourgeoisie, a system of civilized coooperators is the system of socialism."

Lenin also believed that a cultural revolution was necessary for the further development of communist leadership. He gave priority to this in his last writing, "Better fewer, but better": "Our state apparatus is so deplorable, not to say wretched, that we must first think very carefully how to combat its defects, bearing in mind that these defects are rooted in the past, which, although it has been overthrown, has not yet been overcome, has not yet reached the stage of a culture, that has receded into the distant past. I say culture deliberately, because in these matters we can only regard as achieved what has become part and parcel of our culture, of our social life, our habits."

As he then explains, the development of culture is a question of education (not necessarily schooling, but education in the deep sense): "What elements have we for building this apparatus? Only two. First, the workers who are absorbed in the struggle of socialism. These elements are not sufficient educated. They would like to build a better apparatus for us, but they do not know how. They cannot build one. They have not yet developed the culture required for this; and it is culture that is required. Nothing will be achieved in this by doing things in a rush, by assault, by vim or vigour, or in general, by any of the best human qualities. Secondly, we have elements of knowledge, education and training, but they are ridiculously inadequate compared with all other countries."

Lenin saw the trade unions as schools for communist management. In a decree on the trade unions and their role in NEP published on January 12, 1922, Lenin said, "Being a school of communism in general, the trade unions must, in particular, be a school for training the whole mass of workers, and eventually all working people, in the art of managing socialist industry (and gradually also agriculture)."

Lenin's call for a cultural revolution is still relevant for the 21st Century, where it could be taken up again as a call for a new revolutionary strategy to replace the capitalist culture of war by a socialist culture of peace.

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Revolutionary socialist culture of peace

Culture of War

Internal Culture of War

Culture of Peace

Education for nonviolence and democracy

Sustainable development for all

Human rights vs exploitation

Women's equality vs patriarchy

Democratic participation vs authoritarianism

Tolerance and solidarity vs enemy images

Transparency vs secrecy

Disarmament vs armament

Revolutionary leadership

Revolutionary organization

Proletarian Internationalism

National Liberation

Guerrilla Warfare


Agent Provocateurs

Communication systems

Psychology for revolutionaries

Capitalist culture of war

Socialist culture of war

Winning Conflict by Nonviolence

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Peace Process

Soviet Union
Disarmament Proposals

Soviet Collapse

Has Socialism Failed?

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Ecology in Cuba

On Religion

Human Rights in South Africa

on Nonviolence

on Nonviolence

on Communism

Cuba's revolutionary medicine

People-power revolution in the Philippines