Strategy for Revolution in 21st Century
Revolutionary Socialist Culture of Peace Its Relation to a Culture of Peace for the 21st Century


Marx and Engels:
Communist Manifesto

Civil War in France


Theory of History

Marx and Engels:
On Human Nature


Violence and the Origin of the State

Socialism: Utopian and Scientific

Marx, Engels, Lenin:
On Dialectics

What is to be done?


The State and Revolution

Lenin: War Communism

The Cultural Revolution

Left-Wing Communism

The American Revolutions

The French Revolutions

On Workers Control

On Religion

On the Arms Race

Militarization of Labor

Russian Revolution

The Women's Question

Role of Communist Party

On Violence

On the Army

On Women

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

Mao and Fidel:
Fall of the American Empire

Man and Socialism in Cuba

Hall and Winston:
Fighting Racism

National Liberation and Culture

Cabral: National Liberation and Culture

Nkrumah: Neo-Colonialism

Writing in 2004 and looking back at the 20th Century, we can see that a socialist culture of war has failed. Therefore, the strategy for revolution in the 21st Century should aim toward a socialist society based on the principles of the culture of peace.

There are hints of the culture of peace in the classic revolutionary literature. For example, in his last writings, Lenin spoke of the need to move away from war communism toward an economy of peace, and the need for a cultural revolution to lay the basis for communism. In the midst of planning guerrilla war, Mao Tse-Tung dreamed of a coming "epoch of peace." And another great guerrilla warrior, Che Guevara seems to be describing a culture of peace in his most famous essay, Man and Socialism in Cuba. The same can be said for the most famous essay by Joe Slovo, the Communist leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the guerrilla army that helped liberate of South Africa from apartheid rule.

For the most part, however, we are moving into uncharted territory, because the great revolutionary leaders of the past usually have assumed that revolution must be achieved through violence, a strategy that has always led without exception to a socialist culture of war. We must go beyond what they envisioned.

At the same time, we can learn much from the revolutions and revolutionaries of the past.

We can take our motto from the American Revolution and its Declaration of Independence that "whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends ["Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness"], it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government..." And we can learn from the French Revolution, which abolished the old order and then, as described by Lenin, "rousing the vast masses of the people in defence of its gains ... they resisted the whole world" We can learn as well from the French Commune which, as Karl Marx described, went for the first time beyond capitalist democracy to create a workers' democracy.

We may learn much from the Russian Revolution as the first successful working-class revolution, proving that Marx and Engels were correct that the working class is the leading revolutionary class. Although it was never fully implemented, the Russian Revolution made possible the first great experiments in workers' control of the economy, the key to an economy of peace that can provide a stable economic base for the future culture of peace.

From the great revolutionaries of the 20th Century, including Lenin and Mao Tse-Tung, we may learn the fundamental principles of revolutionary leadership, organization and strategy. And from Marx, Engels and Lenin we may learn the important principles of history, psychology and dialectics that are fundamental for revolutionary theory and practice.

Revolutionaries of the past have already given us valuable insights into most of the eight key components of a culture of peace:

Education for nonviolence vs violence

Sustainable development vs exploitation of nature

Human rights vs exploitation of people

Women's equality vs patriarchy

Democratic participation vs authoritarianism

Tolerance and solidarity vs enemy images

Transparency vs secrecy

Disarmament vs armament

In addition to learning from the successes of previous revolutions, we may learn from their failures and shortcomings as analyzed by such great leaders as Rosa Luxemburg and Joe Slovo.

The revolution of the 21st Century must develop new methods to defend itself against the violence of the inevitable attacks by the capitalist culture of war intended to destroy revolutionary movements and new revolutionary governments. In the past, revolutionary movements adopted the methods of the culture of war, but now there are new methods of defense under development that promote a culture of peace, the methods of nonviolent defense as developed and practiced by Gandhi and King.

Successful experiments with nonviolence such as that in South Africa are being repeated and enlarged in other struggles in recent years. An important part of training for revolutionaries in the 21st Century will be the study of these nonviolent resistance movements and training and experience in the disciplined methods that prove to be successful. See, for example, the People-power revolution in the Philippines. No doubt, there will be more and more such movements in the coming years - and more lessons to be learned and applied.

A unique and new method for exporting the revolution without violence is that of Cuba's revolutionary medicine.

Internet and other new means of communication can help speed up and strengthen the development of consciousness that will make possible the revolutions of the 21st Century. Hopefully this Website can play a part.

Some may argue that capitalism is too strong and will overcome any new revolutions. But if we are to believe the predictions of Mao Tse-Tung and Fidel Castro, the American Empire is headed for collapse, which will leave a void of power in the world. It is up to us whether that void is filled by new cultures of war or by a revolutionary culture of peace.

To take part in a discussion about this page, go to the Forum on Culture of Peace on the Discussion Board:

discussion board


Revolutionary socialist culture of peace

Culture of War

Internal Culture of War

Culture of Peace

Education for nonviolence and democracy

Sustainable development for all

Human rights vs exploitation

Women's equality vs patriarchy

Democratic participation vs authoritarianism

Tolerance and solidarity vs enemy images

Transparency vs secrecy

Disarmament vs armament

Revolutionary leadership

Revolutionary organization

Proletarian Internationalism

National Liberation

Guerrilla Warfare


Agent Provocateurs

Communication systems

Psychology for revolutionaries

Capitalist culture of war

Socialist culture of war

Winning Conflict by Nonviolence

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More Sources

South African
Peace Process

Soviet Union
Disarmament Proposals

Soviet Collapse

Has Socialism Failed?

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Ecology in Cuba

On Religion

Human Rights in South Africa

on Nonviolence

on Nonviolence

on Communism

Cuba's revolutionary medicine

People-power revolution in the Philippines