Strategy for Revolution in 21st Century
Women's equality vs patriarchy Its relation to a Culture of Peace for the 21st Century


Marx and Engels:
Communist Manifesto

Civil War in France


Theory of History

Marx and Engels:
On Human Nature


Violence and the Origin of the State

Socialism: Utopian and Scientific

Marx, Engels, Lenin:
On Dialectics

What is to be done?


The State and Revolution

Lenin: War Communism

The Cultural Revolution

Left-Wing Communism

The American Revolutions

The French Revolutions

On Workers Control

On Religion

On the Arms Race

Militarization of Labor

Russian Revolution

The Women's Question

Role of Communist Party

On Violence

On the Army

On Women

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

Mao and Fidel:
Fall of the American Empire

Man and Socialism in Cuba

Hall and Winston:
Fighting Racism

National Liberation and Culture

Cabral: National Liberation and Culture

Nkrumah: Neo-Colonialism

"Inequality between men and women has always characterized the culture of war and violence," while their equality is essential to the culture of peace. This goes back to prehistory according to an anthropological study which found that "The male monopolization of warfare was instituted and extended to hunting (in order to preclude the use of weapons by women) and to the initiation rites of the young (male) warriors. The inequality of power between men and women was institutionalized in a way from which we have never recovered." To put it bluntly, the culture of war is patriarchy.

The struggle for women's equality has gone hand-in-hand with other struggles for social justice throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries, and it remains an essential part of revolutionary programs as we enter the 21st Century. The equality of women is as essential for revolutionary action as it is for a culture of peace. According to Lenin "the experience of all liberation movements has shown that the success of a revolution depends on how much the women take part in it."

Great progress was made toward women's equality in the socialist revolutions of the 20th Century. As Lenin described to Clara Zetkin, as a result of the Russian revolution, "In law there is naturally complete equality of rights for men and women. And everywhere there is evidence of a sincere wish to put this equality into practice. We are bringing the women into the social economy, into legislation and government. All educational institutions are open to them, so that they can increase their professional and social capacities. We are establishing communal kitchens and public eating-houses, laundries and repairing shops, nurseries, kindergartens, children's homes, educational institutes of all kinds."

Similar statements could be made about the other socialist revolutions of the 20th Century. At lower levels of power, there was great progress. Just to cite one example, a study in the Soviet Union and the United States compared what happened to a woman's income following divorce. In the US it fell by half. In the Soviet Union, it increased. One could only be impressed by the high percentage of women in all professions in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

A good indicator of women's equality is the percentage of women in parliament. With the exception of the high percentage of women parliamentarians in Scandinavia, the socialist countries have among the highest percentages: Cuba 36.0%, Vietnam 27.3%, China 20/2%. Compare, for example, Jamaica 11.7%, Thailand 9.2%, US 14.3%.

Socialist countries made major efforts to free women from the double burden of worker and homemaker. Lenin told Clara Zetkin, "we are seriously carrying out the demand in our programme for the transference of the economic and educational functions of the separate household to society. That will mean freedom for the woman from the old household drudgery and dependence on man. That enables her to exercise to the full her talents and her inclinations." And as Mao Tse-Tung said, "Under capitalism, the female half of the human race suffers under a double yoke ... they are, firstly, in an inferior position because the law denies them equality with men, and secondly, and this is most important, they are "in domestic slavery," they are "domestic slaves," crushed by the most petty, most menial, most arduous, and most stultifying work of the kitchen, and by isolated domestic, family economy in general."

A further indication of the close link between revolution and women's equality is shown by the fact when socialism collapsed in Eastern Europe, many of the gains in women's equality were lost.

But full equality was not achieved by socialism in the 20th Century. At the top of state power in most socialist countries, the government leaders were men, reflecting the dominance of war communism. In many cases, photos of top government officials were indistinguishable from photos of military generals.

Revolutionary movements, if they are to achieve full equality for women, will have to press not only for socialism, but also for a culture of peace. At the same time, keeping in mind the dialectical principle that "the interdependence and the closest and indissoluble connection between all aspects of any phenomenon," any action for women's equality contributes to the overall struggle of the culture of peace versus the culture of war.

To take part in a discussion about this page, go to the Discussion Board Forum on Women's Equality vs Patriarchy:

discussion board


Revolutionary socialist culture of peace

Culture of War

Internal Culture of War

Culture of Peace

Education for nonviolence and democracy

Sustainable development for all

Human rights vs exploitation

Women's equality vs patriarchy

Democratic participation vs authoritarianism

Tolerance and solidarity vs enemy images

Transparency vs secrecy

Disarmament vs armament

Revolutionary leadership

Revolutionary organization

Proletarian Internationalism

National Liberation

Guerrilla Warfare


Agent Provocateurs

Communication systems

Psychology for revolutionaries

Capitalist culture of war

Socialist culture of war

Winning Conflict by Nonviolence

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More Sources

South African
Peace Process

Soviet Union
Disarmament Proposals

Soviet Collapse

Has Socialism Failed?

Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Ecology in Cuba

On Religion

Human Rights in South Africa

on Nonviolence

on Nonviolence

on Communism

Cuba's revolutionary medicine

People-power revolution in the Philippines